Pigment International

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year
: 2014  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 95--99

Melasma in North Indians: A clinical, epidemiological, and etiological study


S Kumar, BB Mahajan, Nidhi Kamra 
 Department of Skin and VD, Guru Gobind Singh Medical College and Hospital, Faridkot, Punjab, India

Correspondence Address:
Nidhi Kamra
Department of Dermatology, Guru Gobind Singh Medical College and Hospital, Saadiq Road, Faridkot, Punjab
India

Background: Melasma is a common, acquired and symmetrical hypermelanosis characterized by more/less dark brownish macules, with an irregular contour, but clear limits, on photoexposed sites. The pathogenesis is unknown, but several clinical patterns and etiological factors have been implicated. Aims: Our present study aims to elucidate the epidemiology, clinical patterns and etiological factors in the causation of melasma in North Indians. Methods: A total of 200 consecutive patients attending the out-patient clinic from September 2013 to February 2104 with the clinical diagnosis of melasma were enrolled for the study. Photographic record was kept to study the clinical patterns. Results: The mean age of patients with melasma was 32.9 years, ranging from 18 to 60 years. Female patients out-numbered male patients, and ratio of female to male patients was 6.14:1. Patients sought medical treatment on an average of 1.79 years after appearance of melasma. 48.84% of female patients and 78.57% of males reported exacerbation with sun exposure. 36.4% of the females reported onset of melasma during pregnancy. Family history was observed in 29.07% of our female patients and 14.28% of males. History of use of mustard oil either for massage or for cooking was given by 54.07% of females and 32.14% of males, while 45.35% of females and 32.14% of males used topical corticosteroids or over-the-counter products for the treatment of melasma. Centro-facial was the most common pattern observed in 76.74% of the female patients while the malar pattern was seen in 85.71% of males. Other patterns we observed were mandibular (3.5%), lateral cheek (1.5%) and brachial (1%). Conclusion: The exact pathogenesis of melasma is unknown. Here in we have tried to elucidate the epidemiology, clinical patterns, and etiological factors in the causation of this pigmentary imperfection.


How to cite this article:
Kumar S, Mahajan B B, Kamra N. Melasma in North Indians: A clinical, epidemiological, and etiological study.Pigment Int 2014;1:95-99


How to cite this URL:
Kumar S, Mahajan B B, Kamra N. Melasma in North Indians: A clinical, epidemiological, and etiological study. Pigment Int [serial online] 2014 [cited 2022 May 28 ];1:95-99
Available from: https://www.pigmentinternational.com/article.asp?issn=2349-5847;year=2014;volume=1;issue=2;spage=95;epage=99;aulast=Kumar;type=0