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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-December 2018
Volume 5 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 73-132

Online since Friday, December 14, 2018

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EDITORIAL  

Lichen planus pigmentosus and frontal fibrosing alopecia: The link explored p. 73
Ashraf Raihan, Muthu Sendhil Kumaran
DOI:10.4103/Pigmentinternational.Pigmentinternational_19_18  
There has been a recent rush of data regarding the combined presentation of lichen planus pigmentosus and frontal fibrosing alopecia in premenoposal women of dark skin. This review article addresses the relationship between the two.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Sunscreens: Time to think beyond UV rays p. 78
Chitralekha Keisham, Nelson Elangbam, Rashmi Sarkar
DOI:10.4103/Pigmentinternational.Pigmentinternational_15_18  
It has been known to us that solar radiation contributes to photoaging. Until recently, it was thought to be due to ultraviolet rays alone. However, a growing number of evidence confirms that visible and infrared (IR) rays also contribute to extrinsic aging. Visible and IR rays account for 50% and 45% of the solar radiation reaching the earth. Ultraviolet A induces retrograde mitochondrial signal, thus leading to induction of matrix metalloproteinase. Ultraviolet B and IRC cause heat-related generation of free radicals and destruction of collagen and elastin. Exposure to visible light induces cytokines, free-radical formation, and pigmentary changes in human skin. The end result of solar radiation is generation of free radicals and ultimately oxidative damage, photoaging, and photocarcinogenesis. The present broad spectrum sunscreen does not provide complete protection of the human skin from oxidative insult. So, a combination of a sun protection factor active component along with an antioxidant is the ideal way of photoprotection. Till date, a number of antioxidants have been tried in human and animals which have shown to be an effective photoprotective agent, though few studies have failed to prove the same. Even with conflicting reports, effect of antioxidants on human skin needs to be explored more. A good study design with a large sample size in humans must be conducted as visible light and IR rays contribute significantly to photodamage.
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Idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis: An overview p. 83
Indrashis Podder, Rashmi Sarkar
DOI:10.4103/Pigmentinternational.Pigmentinternational_17_18  
Idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis is a commonly acquired, benign leukoderma characterized by multiple, discrete round or oval, porcelain-white macules on sun-exposed areas, especially the extensor aspect of forearms and shins, sparing the face, neck, and trunk. It usually affects the geriatric population (>50 years); chronic exposure to ultraviolet rays and senile degeneration being the important pathogenic factors. The diagnosis remains essentially clinical, whereas newer confirmatory investigations are emerging. Despite the benign course of progression, many patients seek medical attention owing to cosmetic concerns. Several treatment modalities have been tried over time including topical, physical, and surgical measures, although there is lack of a standard treatment regime. In this article, we have reviewed the different aspects of this condition including treatment, along with the recent updates to create awareness about this dermatological entity.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Correlation of clinicodermatoscopic and Wood’s lamp findings in patients having melasma p. 91
Rupali Dharni, Bhushan Madke, Adarsh L Singh,
DOI:10.4103/Pigmentinternational.Pigmentinternational_33_17  
Introduction: Melasma is a commonly acquired pigmentary disorder that manifests as symmetric hyperpigmented macules and patches on the face. Aim: To correlate Wood’s lamp and dermatoscopic findings in patients having melasma. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 patients who were clinically diagnosed with melasma were examined under a Wood’s lamp and dermatoscope, and all the findings were recorded and analyzed. Result: The degree of agreement between the Wood’s lamp findings and dermatoscopic findings was found to be substantial as analyzed by kappa statistics with K = 0.813 and P = 0.0001 (significant). Conclusion: Dermatoscopy is advocated globally as a screening and diagnostic procedure for melasma and other pigmentary disorders, especially for earlier therapeutic intervention targeting different stages and mechanisms involved in pathogenesis.
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A study of comparison of PUVASOL and NBUVB in patients with vitiligo p. 96
Vaaruni Ravishankar, Santoshdev P Rathod, Siddhartha Saikia, Raju G Chaudhary, Rekha B Solanki
DOI:10.4103/Pigmentinternational.Pigmentinternational_39_17  
Introduction: Vitiligo is an acquired, hypomelanotic disease, characterized by circumscribed depigmented macules. Phototherapy, which is the use of ultraviolet irradiation with or without exogenous photosensitizer is a well established treatment option. Psoralens with sunlight as the source of ultraviolet A-rays is known as PUVASOL. Narrow band Ultraviolet B phototherapy (NBUVB; 311–313 nm) has been introduced over the past decade. Aims: To study the clinical effectiveness and assess the safety of NBUVB and PUVASOL therapy in Vitiligo patients. Methods: The patients were randomly allocated in to two groups containing 25 patients each. Group A patients received NBUVB with an initial dose of 250 mJ/cm2, incremented by 20% with each subsequent visit till optimum dose was achieved, twice a week on non-consecutive days. Group B patients received PUVASOL-oral Trimethylpsoralen or topical 0.2% w/w Trioxsalen followed by exposure to sunlight, twice a week on non-consecutive days. The extent of repigmentation was documented at regular intervals upto 6 months. Results: Amongst patients receiving NBUVB and PUVASOL, 56% and 48% had ≥50% repigmentation respectively. Disease was unstable in 48% and 36% of patients prior to commencement of therapy which reduced to 12% and 16% after therapy, respectively. 16% and 36% of the patients experienced side effects and 76% and 48% showed excellent colour match of the repigmented patches respectively. Conclusion: While both PUVASOL and NBUVB are both good therapeutic options; NBUVB therapy is found to be more effective and more cosmetically acceptable, with better colour matching of lesions and minimal adverse effects.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Actinic keratosis in vitiligo after oral PUVAsol therapy with review p. 103
Saumya Sankhwar, Sunil K Gupta
DOI:10.4103/Pigmentinternational.Pigmentinternational_2_18  
Abstract Vitiligo is an acquired disorder characterised by depigmentation. The etiopathogenesis is still unclear and many theories have been proposed for the same. It is believed that due to lack of protective melanin, a vitiliginous patch is more prone to photodamage by UV radiation and development of skin cancers especially following PUVASOL therapy. But, few cutaneous malignancies have been reported and even fewer cases of actinic keratoses have been reported over a vitiliginous skin. Here, we report a case of elderly female who developed actinic keratoses over longstanding sun exposed vitiliginous skin post PUVA therapy.
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Xeroderma pigmentosum complicated by keratoacanthoma in a Kashmiri girl p. 107
Yasmeen J Bhat, Peerzada Sajad, Najmu Saqib, Iffat Hassan, Roohi Wani
DOI:10.4103/Pigmentinternational.Pigmentinternational_5_18  
Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by defective DNA repair leading to clinical and cellular hypersensitivity to ultraviolet radiation. It manifests clinically as intense cutaneous photosensitivity, acute burning under minimal sun exposure, erythema, xerosis, poikiloderma, actinic keratosis, lentigines, and development of malignant lesions like basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma in sun-exposed areas. We hereby report a case of xeroderma pigmentosum complicated by keratoacanthoma in a 9-year-old ethnic Kashmiri girl who had history of photosensitivity, dry skin, and pigmentary changes from the age of 2 years.
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Erythema dyschromicum perstans in pregnancy p. 110
Shagufta Rather, Atiya Yaseen, Sameena Batool, Iffat Hassan
DOI:10.4103/Pigmentinternational.Pigmentinternational_8_18  
Erythema dyschromicum perstans is a slowly progressive acquired dermatoses characterized by macular hyperpigmentation. There is no racial, genetic, or sex predilection. It occurs in adults, with some isolated cases and small series occurring in prepubertal children. The pigmentary disorder has never been reported in patients during pregnancy. We report a singular case of the disorder in a pregnant woman.
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Steroid-induced perilymphatic hypopigmentation: Response to tacrolimus p. 114
Sneha Ghunawat, Rashmi Sarkar
DOI:10.4103/Pigmentinternational.Pigmentinternational_11_18  
Intralesional steroids are commonly used in dermatological practice. This route of administration has the advantage of minimal side effects. However, other adverse reactions namely local atrophy, ulceration, infections, etc. have been noted. One peculiar side effect following this route of administration “steroid-induced perilymphatic hypopigmentation and atrophy” has been described below. Although this condition repigments spontaneously, the use of tacrolimus to fasten the response has been highlighted in the case report.
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

Dermoscopy − Master by analysis and patience, not haste and nonchalance p. 117
Sidharth Sonthalia, Abhijeet K Jha, Manal Bosseila, Enzo Errichetti
DOI:10.4103/Pigmentinternational.Pigmentinternational_38_17  
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THE CLINICAL PICTURE Top

Bilateral nevus of Ota p. 120
M. M. Aarif Syed, Bibush Amatya, Shazia Alam
DOI:10.4103/Pigmentinternational.Pigmentinternational_1_18  
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THROUGH THE DERMOSCOPE Top

Dermoscopy of pigmented basal cell carcinoma p. 123
Kinjal D Rambhia, Vrutika H Shah, Rajesh P Singh
DOI:10.4103/Pigmentinternational.Pigmentinternational_13_18  
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CURRENT BEST EVIDENCE Top

Current Best Evidence in Pigmentary Dermatology p. 125
Divya Kamat, Vinay Keshavamurthy
DOI:10.4103/Pigmentinternational.Pigmentinternational_22_18  
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CROSSWORD Top

PIGMENTCROSS 4 p. 130
Ashish Amrani, Anupam Das
DOI:10.4103/Pigmentinternational.Pigmentinternational_24_18  
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