|Year : 2016 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 29-32
Management of gingival hyperpigmentation
Luis Eduardo Rilling Nova Cruz, Josué Martos, Fernanda Blos Borges, Ellen Luisa Kochhann Lima
Department of Semiology and Clinics, Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil
|Date of Web Publication||17-Jun-2016|
Dr. Josué Martos
Department of Semiology and Clinics, Faculty of Dentistry, University Federal of Pelotas, Goncalves Chaves Street 457, Pelotas, RS 96015-560
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
The gingival melanin hyperpigmentation may represent an esthetic problem for some patients. Among the alternative treatments, the epithelial abrasion or scrapping is a simple and effective technique. The aim of this report is to present a clinical treatment of gingival melanin hyperpigmentation treated by the technique of epithelial scrapping. The result of the employed technique proved to be effective in the removal of melanin pigment, restoring the patient's esthetic, and self-esteem.
Keywords: Hyperpigmentation, periodontal surgery, treatment
|How to cite this article:|
Cruz LE, Martos J, Borges FB, Kochhann Lima EL. Management of gingival hyperpigmentation. Pigment Int 2016;3:29-32
| Introduction|| |
The gingiva is considered normal and healthy has a pink color and it is firmly attached to the alveolar process and the cervical parts of the teeth. In light-skinned patients, the color of the gingiva is a slightly pink and in black individuals, the gingiva is frequently spotted with brown or is a fairly grayish brown as a result of the melanin in some epithelial cells. The gingival hyperpigmentation is caused by an excessive deposition of melanin, mainly in the basal and suprabasal layers of the epithelium and is related to a series of local and systemic factors.,
The gingival melanin hyperpigmentation does not represent pathology but a variation of normality and can become an esthetic problem suitable for treatment, especially for those individuals with high-smile line and clearer skin. For removal of melanotic pigmentation, among the techniques most commonly employed are the epithelial abrasion ,, and gingivectomy., Other techniques such as cryotherapy and laser have been proposed for the removal of this gingival hyperpigmentation., The aim of this paper is to describe the treatment of gingival melanin hyperpigmentation by the use of the epithelial scrapping technique.
| Case Report|| |
A 25-year-old female patient was referred to the dental clinic, reporting a visual discomfort with the appearance of the smile [Figure 1]. At the initial clinical examination and anamnesis, it was observed an excessive gingival hyperpigmentation in maxillary and mandibular arches [Figure 2] and [Figure 3]. The periodontal health of the patient was satisfactory, and radiographic examination revealed no abnormalities of the supporting tissues. The pattern of the gingival hyperpigmentation suggested that an epithelial surgical scraping or gingival peeling with a scalpel blade or Kirkland scalpel would be a reliable option for this case.
During the presurgical appointments, the patient received preoperative information. After this, it was mapped the extension of the gingival hyperpigmentation to be removed. This procedure was performed in all gingival aspects, buccal, and proximal segment involving the premolars to premolars. The surgical procedure was divided into two phases: The first would be the intervention in the maxillary arch and the second stage surgery performed after 2 weeks in the mandibular arch.
From this point on antisepsis was performed with extra-oral iodine solution and intra-oral with a 2% chlorhexidine digluconate solution for subsequent regional block anesthesia. Immediately were initiating the scrapping procedures in the gingival surface of the maxilla. The periodontal surgical procedures were executed with a scalpel type Kirkland (Hu-Friedy Co., Chicago, IL, USA) at an inclination of 45°, scrapping, smoothing, and contouring the gingival tissue remaining [Figure 3],[Figure 4],[Figure 5],[Figure 6],[Figure 7] and a more refined approach was performed with the active part of a disposable scalpel blade 15C (Albion, Albion Surgicals Ltd., Sheffield, England).
|Figure 4: Incisal view evidencing the thickness of gingival tissue removed|
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|Figure 6: Buccal apect of the mandibular arch after scrappng (left side)|
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The surgical area was protected with surgical cement for 7 days. Orientation postsurgical was concluded with indication of the use of solution of chlorhexidine digluconate 0.12%. Postoperative period of 7 days showed favorable clinical aspect evidenced by the absence of bleeding besides a clinical appearance consistent with what had been planned [Figure 8]. The same result was obtained also after surgery in the mandibular arch. A follow-up evaluation was carried out in a period of 6 months after surgical periodontal procedure showing a good appearance [Figure 9].
|Figure 8: Final aspect of the gingival coloration after 2-week of the periodontal procedures|
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| Discussion|| |
Among the different techniques for the removal of the gingival hyperpigmentation proposed by the literature, epithelial abrasion seems to present certain advantages compared to the others.,, The difference presented in this case report is the use of a Kirkland scalpel to initiate the procedure, associated with a disposable scalpel blade to an adequate refinement of the gingival scrapping. The technique is relatively simple, safe, requires no sophisticated equipment or materials, is minimally invasive, and the postoperative period is favorable.
The result of this procedure is considered satisfactory and in some cases is definitive. However, repigmentation can occur between 6 months and 3 years, and additional procedures can be required for gingival color maintenance.
The repigmentation after this treatment is an important point to be considered. The literature shows that repigmentation occurs with considerable low frequency while some authors, using different techniques, have not reported cases of re-pigmentation.,, However, we should emphasize to the patient the possibility of repigmentation in future, and should consider the possibility of new surgical procedures. In the case presented the main cause of hyperpigmentation, i.e. Addison's disease, has not been precisely determined.
The use of periodontal surgical maneuvers when properly implemented, allow satisfactory cosmetic results, being simple, and economical techniques as well as preserving the integrity of the periodontal tissue volumetric compared to more invasive surgical procedures. We observed that the repair was satisfactory with no postoperative discomfort, infection or scarring. The result of the employed technique proved to be effective in the removal of melanin pigment, restoring the patient's esthetic, and self-esteem.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9]